Researched and Written by David Watters
To what extent is the Equal Opportunities Policy of School X being implemented within the Music Department and what is the effect upon achievement amongst students from ethnic minority communities?
The ethnic make-up of our nation is constantly evolving and within schools the student population is increasingly varied in ethnic, social, economic, religious and cultural backgrounds. Our job as teachers is to facilitate the learning of all students through provision of a learning environment where learners feel welcome, respected, equally able to participate and to achieve.
In order to ensure maximum achievement, across the entire learning community, schools should have in place an Equal Opportunities Policy which is regularly reviewed and which impacts upon every aspect of school life.
An absence of effective equal opportunities policies wastes human talent and deprives both the individual of the satisfaction of realising their full potential and society of their skills. Turner, T (2001)
This paper investigates the extent to which the Equal Opportunities Policy of School X is being implemented within the Music Department and what effect there is upon achievement amongst students from ethnic minority communities as a result.
“The ethos of the school strongly promotes learning and achievement and effectively encourages a sense of self-belief in it’s pupils” Ofsted Report (2005)
School X which is a large (1719 students) multi-ethnic Girls (Mixed 6th Form) Comprehensive School , within the Borough of Greenwich, was given Performing Arts Status in 2000 and in 2004 became designated as a Humanities College .
Students are from diverse and, in some cases deprived, backgrounds. 39% of students are eligible for free school meals (well above the national average); and, students with statements of special educational need are also above the national average.
The student body can be divided according to ethnicity where approximately 50% of the student population is Caucasian, though not exclusively white-British, and the remaining 50% represent a wide spectrum of ethnic minority groups. (Appendix 1.5A)
As may be expected, the proportion of students whose first language is not English is extremely high. Bi-Lingual students are positively encouraged through a variety of practices; Awareness raising - use of interpreters and school liaison team, bi-lingual notices, displays reflecting languages and cultures and INSET days; Encouragement of home language development - the school provides Panjabi and Urdu twilight and weekend classes, School X funds GCSE entrance in a range of home languages and parents are encouraged to support both formal and informal development of their home language; Use of first language to support access to the curriculum - Tutor Group placements where first language groupings are a major consideration, allowance where written work may first be drafted in the student’s home language and literacy groups where bi-lingual texts are utilised.
This respect for an individual’s home language and culture brings increased confidence and strengthens identity. GCSE language attainment is a testament to this and over the past 3 years students have successfully entered exams in Arabic, Bengali, Chinese, Farsi, French, German, Greek, Gujarati, Hindi, Italian, Panjabi, Persian, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Turkish and Urdu.
Equal Opportunities Policy
The Equal Opportunities Policy at School X is fairly standard with it’s overall aim being to “maximise achievement by ensuring equality of opportunity for all members of the community.”
The principles set out are that:
- · All individuals are unique and are valued and respected equally.
- · All individuals are entitled to equal access to the full range of opportunities and learning experiences.
- · All individuals are entitled to an accessible, positive curriculum, and to learn, teach and work in a supportive, non-threatening environment in which self-esteem is enhanced.
- · It is everyone’s duty to be aware of issues of variety and difference including class, gender, sexuality, race, religion, bilingualism, culture, physical disability and all special educational needs and abilities including marked aptitude.
- · It is everyone’s responsibility to address the behavioural needs of students in the context of learning.
- · It is everyone’s duty to challenge and combat all forms of discrimination in any of these areas.
(Extract; Equal Opportunity Policy Document (2005/6 School X)
When put into practice this should mean that the above principles inform all policies, procedures, structures, organisation and developments in the school and permeate all areas of the curriculum.
The Rampton Report, which was based on the work of a committee set up as a result of widespread concern at the poor academic performance of Afro-Caribbean pupils, contended that:
A ‘good’ education should enable a child to understand his [sic] own society, and to know enough about other societies to enhance that understanding. A ‘good’ education cannot be based on one society only, and in Britain , where ethnic minorities form a permanent and integral part of the population, we do not believe that education should seek to iron out the differences between cultures, nor attempt to draw everyone into the dominant culture. On the contrary, it will draw upon the experiences of the many cultures that make up our society and thus broaden the cultural horizons of every child. That is what we mean by ‘multicultural’ education. (DES, 1981, 27)
The report recognized the value of multicultural education in all schools, irrespective of their ethnic composition and expanded upon this definition as follows:
“The multicultural curriculum is one which is appropriate to the education of all pupils, whatever their background, by reference to a diversity of cultures.” (DES, 1981, 27; original emphasis)
Ofsted Inspection in April 2005
Inspection Judgements following an Ofsted inspection in April 2005 were favourable with most areas considered to be Grade 1: Outstanding and none below Grade 2: Good. (Appendix 1.5B)
The Headteacher and staff are strongly committed to high standards and to convincing pupils that they can achieve Ofsted Report (2005)
The Quality of Provision in two areas was deemed to be “good”:
How effective are teaching and learning in meeting the full range of learners’ needs? and How well do the curriculum and other activities meet the range of needs and interests of learners?
The report stated that, ‘lessons have clear objectives and a common structure, although these sometimes lack the detail needed to meet the full range of students’ needs.’ but added that, ‘Teaching Assistants and Learning Mentors support students with special educational needs effectively by helping teachers to ensure these students make good progress.’ Ofsted Report (2005)
We have high academic expectations of all our students regardless of ability Headteacher, School X
The Curriculum - G & T and Learning Support
The Ofsted Report, 2005 stated that ‘The school provides a good, varied and stimulating curriculum that meets the needs of individual students.’ and further commented that, ‘It is clear that staff at all levels in the school are firmly committed to giving pupils the best quality of education they can achieve.’
The school has high expectations of all students and a recognises that different groups of students need to be supported in different ways; most able students are stretched and special provision is made for them in lessons and also through enrichment and gifted and talented programmes; additional support is offered to students with specific learning needs both within the classroom or in small teaching groups – this includes EAL and SEN students or those with behavioural issues who are offered guidance and support through the school‘s Inclusion Unit.
Through one to one interviews, mentoring and study days students begin to realise they have great potential Gifted and Talented Co-ordinator (2005) School X
The quality of teaching, support systems and the Pastoral Care provision within School X facilitate incredible progress and high level achievement across the curriculum. GCSE results continue to improve across all subject areas and it is a credit to the school that one Afghani student who arrived in the UK only 5 years ago, with no real grasp of English, was last year awarded 10 GCSEs.
Music Department – The Curriculum and Extra-Curricular Activities
In September 2000 Performing Arts Status was awarded to School X in recognition of the quality of the curriculum, teaching and community involvement.
Curriculum innovations, especially those linked with theatre, dance and music have widened course and extra curricular activities significantly. Ofsted Report (2005), Curriculum and Other Activities
The Music Department has grown in recent years and increased funding, as a result of gaining Performing Arts Status, has meant that greater diversity in musical experience can now be offered to students; Post-16 options have broadened to include AS Music Technology and a wide variety of BTEC Performing Arts courses.
The Equal Opportunities Policy of School X states that ‘All individuals are unique and are valued and respected equally’ This is evident in that access to provision is non-discriminatory and all students have practical music lessons in Years 7-9. The curriculum for these students, whilst designed as a building block toward GCSE, demonstrates an awareness of ‘issues of variety and difference including class, gender, race, religion, bilingualism, culture, physical disability and all special educational needs and abilities including marked aptitude.’
In view of this, however, it is true that particular ethnic groups choose not to pursue GCSE music as an option. Although it is important to understand cultural influences upon this decision, more worrying is that prior learning may have been led to a disengagement of a pupils interest. To understand this better it is of particular interest to look at the Schemes of Work which are currently being delivered to students between Years 7 and 9 at School X (Appendix 1.5C). The curriculum at this level is designed primarily to develop “Knowledge, Skills and Understanding” whilst introducing cross-curricular concepts of literacy, numeracy and citizenship and ICT.
Between Years 7 and 9 there is no specific reference to music of India , Africa or China (Appendix 1.5C) and it is therefore the duty of the teacher to find methods of incorporating these into planning. The unit titles and keywords are, perhaps, deliberately open to allow for teacher input and greater flexibility when lesson planning. Therefore, in order to show learners that they are valued and respected equally a teacher is duty bound to devise, obtain and deliver resources which are culturally varied and representative. It should be stressed that it is not only what is taught but also how creatively it is delivered which has an impact on educational achievement.
Motivation can come from a desire to emulate and where no gender or cultural role models are present there is a greater potential for disinterest and low attainment. Teachers must consider their choice of resources and make adjustment to Lesson Plans where possible to provide for more inclusive learning. In a school which is culturally diverse it is more important than ever to present a broader picture of the world.
The variety of social and cultural groups should be evident in the visual images, stories and information disseminated within the school. However, this selection should not be made in such a way as to reinforce stereotyping of life-styles, occupations, status [or] human characteristics [of] one particular culture. (DES, 1981, 27; Rampton Report)
Resources must be both relevant to the subject and something to which students can relate. This is a tall order, but over the course of each Unit reference should be made, where possible, to the variety of musical genres from a broad range of cultures.
At School X where it is true that ‘all individuals are entitled to equal access to the full range of opportunities and learning experiences,’ it is not enough to treat all students alike and to provide “equal access” if the learning experience is not representative of the learners’ diversity.
The positive ethos of the Music Department is in line with that of the school and the standard of teaching is extremely high with an impressive subject knowledge and level of musicianship amongst staff which should be admired. However, the resources utilised by teaching staff within the Music Department at School X are often traditional, commonplace and “safe.” There does exist a creative spirit but it rests too comfortably within a limited comfort zone which fails to fully inspire learners.
Teachers can, all too often, fall into the trap of reproducing a “good” lesson from year to year regardless of the cultural variations within the group. It is no longer acceptable to present a class with Frere Jacques or Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star when more stimulating and culturally representational resources exist.
Tony Turner in Unit 4.4: Responding to Diversity, Learning to Teach in the Secondary School presents a compelling insight:
Equal opportunities are about maximising the aspirations of all pupils, and not about trying to make pupils of all ethnic backgrounds more like each other. The task of the school is to create a learning environment in which all pupils can thrive. Not recognising pupil differences, including culture, is as inadequate a response to teaching demands as the stereotyping of pupils.
He further adds that, ‘No matter how concerned the school is to promote equal opportunities through good policies, implementing them in the classroom is not an easy matter.’
Here it would be useful to look, in more detail, at KS3 Schemes of Work at School X. Analysis of one Unit in some depth will further illustrate Turner’s point and perhaps demonstrate that, although no “easy matter”, it is possible to consider ways in which to introduce engaging cultural stimuli in line with the principles of the Equal Opportunities Policy of the school.
The Year 7, Scheme of Work entitled ATMOSPHERES where the given keywords were MOOD, PROGRAMME MUSIC, EFFECTS and SPECIAL OCCASION offers immense scope for creativity. Listening extracts, now that we have infinite online capabilities, are unlimited and can draw on music from any given culture, so long as the music is descriptive and atmospheric. Consideration of “Special Occasion” can open up a stimulating group activity where students can share knowledge and experience of other cultures, not necessarily their own, about religious festivals and related music. (Appendix 1.5D) If teaching this Unit around the period of a particular festival then this could be an opportunity to compliment other areas of the curriculum such as RE and Citizenship.
Compositional stimuli may be images or writing which describe another culture. From this, students may create, individually or in small groups, a brief written narrative which gives an account of the action and emotion of the story. For EAL students this may even be done in their home language initially. This then can be created musically through a group composition activity. There are links here to literacy where differentiated learning can be enhanced with regard to EAL and SEN students.
Embracing cultural diversity in this manner gives learners ownership of the project which can only stimulate and motivate. If such measures are taken in preparation and organisation then the schools Equal Opportunities Policy with regards to the learners entitlement to an accessible, positive curriculum ‘where students can learn, in a supportive environment in which self-esteem is enhanced’ is undoubtedly adhered to.
In 2005, of those opting to study music in Years 10 and 11, only a very small percentage came from ethnic minority communities with more than 70% coming from a White-British background and the remaining 30% divided amongst ethnic-minority groups (predominantly Black-British of either West Indian or African descent). From these groups there was no-one for whom English was an additional language and only 5 students in both years were of Asian origin.
Although there was a 96% pass rate in GCSE Music in 2005, with 48% of those entered gaining Grades from A*- C, almost 50% of those initially choosing the subject were not entered and those with good grades were predominantly White-British with only a few exceptions.
The Edexcel GCSE Music Specification is in line with the finest principles of School X’s Equal Opportunities Policy stating that the course is designed to develop the learners’ ‘understanding and appreciation of a range of different kinds of music, ability to make musical judgements’ and ‘develop broader life-skills and attributes including critical and creative thinking, aesthetic sensitivity and emotional and cultural development.’
It is based on an ethos which goes beyond the mere theoretical comprehension of music and aims to provide a learning programme which develops the learners’ sense of the world and their place within that world with ‘ areas of study (which) include a wide range of music including classical, world music and popular music.’ (Appendix 1.5E) Edexcel GCSE in Music, Specification (February 2006)
In following such a course teachers and learners have the opportunity to investigate, validate and appreciate the importance of an array of musical genres and their cultural roots.
In this area good teaching practise at School X is prevalent with learning across the different areas of study which incorporates the learners’ diverse cultural needs and which makes provision for the varied learning styles within the class. It is of concern, however, that only 50% of students completed the course but investigation confirms that many students had seen music as the “easy option” and were surprised by the level of course work expected. This information was obtained through informal discussions with excluded students over a three week period. These students demonstrated an enjoyment of music but lacked the necessary technical and theoretical skills to fully achieve. It is encouraging that even amongst those not entered for the GCSE examination there was a healthy, active participation in the many extra-curricular musical activities available.
Extra Curricular Provision – Opportunities and Success
Much has been written about the importance of “informal learning” and the impact on achievement in a broader context.
Knowledge may be gained or used in a number of non-formal, or extra-curricular, situations. Eruat (2004: 247-273) investigates peer culture, learning from experience, tacit knowledge and the transfer of knowledge from one situation to another. Informal education has a invaluable place alongside formal education but as Coffield (2000: 1) notes, for all the talk of lifelong learning and the learning society the focus remains on formal provision, qualifications and accountability.
Learning involves the whole person; it implies not only a relation to specific activities, but a relation to social communities – it implies becoming a full participant, a member, a kind of person. In this view, learning only partly – and often incidentally – implies becoming able to be involved in new activities, to perform new tasks and functions, to master new understandings. Activities, tasks, functions, and understandings do not exist in isolation; they are part of broader systems of relations in which they have meaning. Lave and Wenger (1991: 53)
As a result of it’s diversity and inclusivity the Extra Curricular Provision at School X attracts a wide variety of students who are eager to participate in and attend an assortment of musical performances . Ofsted observed, ‘Provision for extra-curricular support, activities and sport is very strong.’
Approximately 300 students currently have free instrumental tuition. Further to this, the school boasts an overwhelming number of organised groups including a Steel Pan Band, various choirs (Year 7, Gospel and Senior Choir), a girls Barbershop Group (Years 10 & 11), Pop Club (Year 8 & 9), Wind and String Ensembles, Samba Band and tutor support is given to many more student run ensembles and bands. There is an annual dance performance, Outburst, which involves students from all year groups.
The Performing Arts Co-ordinator recognises the importance of broadening the learning experience and believes that when students are given the opportunity to mix they can develop in untold ways. This helps to develop a sense of community amongst the students and, in the end, can only benefit the school.
Performing Arts status is developing the confidence and self-esteem of our students through exciting school and community activities. Performing Arts Co-ordinator (2005) School X
The school promotes and celebrates the richness of it’s multicultural, multi-ethnic community through every aspect of it’s work and it’s environment. Further evidence of this can be seen in the programming of last year’s Winter Concert in which most of the aforementioned groups participated. Throughout the evening the capacity audience, at Goldsmiths College, enjoyed a multi-cultural musical marathon of both solo and ensemble performances which included Western Classical music, Indian Classical, Samba, Steel Pans, Musical Theatre, Jazz, Rock and Pop.
These extra curricular activities enrich the lives of students by promoting self-esteem and developing a sense of community. Relationships across year groups result in the strengthening of the supportive peer network which extends outwith the school environment and into the wider community. The self-belief learned or improved through such experiences can be beneficial to the student across the curriculum. Increased confidence to speak up, to question or to challenge ideas in other subjects will enhance the students development and academic achievement and, as such, should not be underestimated.
Therefore, if the Equal Opportunities Policy at School X aims to ‘maximise achievement by ensuring equality of opportunity for all members of the community,’ then surely the school’s Music Department, through high standards in curricular and extra-curricular experience, uphold this principle.
Multi-cultural awareness and curricular development is remarkable at School X with only slight concerns over the limited creativity regarding provision for younger students. The question then is of how this may be improved. There is a commonly held notion, amongst political thinkers, that the curriculum would be improved if different cultures were represented within the staff.
In 2003, just 2.9 per cent of teachers in London schools were Black. The proportion of Black pupils, at 19.6 per cent, was more than six times the proportion of Black teachers. The proportion of Black, Asian and minority ethnic pupils in London schools was 43.5 per cent, but the proportion of Black, Asian and minority ethnic teachers was just 7.4 per cent.
The Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, with reference to research commissioned by the London Development Agency’s Education Commission to coincide with the third London Schools and the Black Child Conference in 2004. said: ‘In 2003 roughly 70 per cent of African Caribbean pupils left school with less than five higher grade GCSEs or their equivalents. More than twenty years after Rampton’s landmark report, years of failure to educate Black children have been catastrophic for those young people and their communities. It will also be a disaster for London as a whole.’
The Mayor added, ‘To fully meet the needs of London ‘s diverse communities the teaching profession and school governing bodies must reflect the communities they serve. This means that at least a third of London teachers and school governors should be of African, Caribbean or Asian heritage. This means establishing targets and timetables for their achievement across Greater London, and in each borough. At a borough level, the targets should reflect the different diverse communities of the individual borough.’
Diane Abbott, MP for Hackney North and Stoke Newington, said in response to the same report:
Parents need to make sure their children are exposed to role models in their own family, church or community. Role models should also include Black people who have achieved academically, such as teachers. Black teachers can sometimes relate better to Black children and be less inclined to view them as stereotypes. But the focus should now be on the recruitment of more Black teachers in the mainstream and the support of Black people already in the profession. London Development Agency, News and Press Archive, Increase Black teacher numbers to improve education outcomes for Black children (7 Sep 2004)
The report, by Carol Hunte, highlights that black teachers are central to raising the attainment of black pupils and, although there is merit in this theory, Ms Abbotts view that black teachers are better equipped than others to understand or empathise with black students is, however, a dangerous notion which reinforces negative stereotypes about non-Black teachers. There are a majority of teachers from various cultural backgrounds who have intelligence and sensitivity enough to provide a balanced and culturally aware curriculum. Recruitment should not be about fulfilling racially representative staffing quotas unless this results in the engagement of the best quality of teaching staff.
Conclusion – Recommendations
It is everyone’s duty to be aware of issues of variety and difference including class, gender, sexuality, race, religion, bilingualism, culture, physical disability and all special educational needs and abilities including marked aptitude. Extract; Equal Opportunity Policy Document, School X (2005)
If each department within a school delivers a curriculum based on this statement then all members of the learning community should feel valued and be better placed to succeed.
To what extent is the Equal Opportunities Policy of School X being implemented within the Music Department and what is the effect upon achievement amongst students from ethnic minority communities?
The Music Department at School X is well managed and teachers provide an exceptional level of tuition within the curriculum. An area which could easily be improved, however, is provision within the KS3 syllabus which could be more prescribed, without restricting teacher creativity, to ensure culturally stimulating delivery; particularly with regards to resources and ICT. Here the Head of Department should have greater involvement in regularly assessing quality of content and level of delivery.
Departmental INSET training days which focus on the use of resources and professional development with regards to ICT capability would also be beneficial. Staff can rely too heavily on tried and tested resources and methods of presentation which may not take account of individual learning needs.
Greater involvement in Educational Partnerships including specifically improved communication with SEN and EAL staff would promote better practise. A wider development of Creative Partnerships could fill gaps in teacher and student knowledge, particularly with regards to specific cultural awareness. Visiting Tutors and specialised music organisations could be utilised to enhance the curriculum.
To ensure that students are achieving their full potential more rigorous and regular assessment would highlight any deficiency in student understanding and development.
Extra Curricular provision is outstanding but could be better publicised in order that even more students have an awareness of what is on offer within the department.
Where possible, School X could look at different ways to introduce positive role models from ethnic minority communities. School X has a healthy cultural mix amongst staff although this is not reflected in the Music Department where the majority of teachers are white-British. Within the Performing Arts Department the picture is slightly broader and although staff do not mirror the cultural make up of the pupils there is a greater variety of cultural backgrounds present such as South African, Australian, American and Vietnamese. There are benefits to a multi-ethnic staff but it should not be prescribed as the only option for “good” education. So long as teachers are culturally aware and can demonstrate an understanding of the importance of planning and delivering a varied and stimulating curriculum, which acknowledges the schools diversity, students will relate to staff regardless of ethnicity, class or gender and achieve their full potential.
The principles promoted within the Equal Opportunities Policy of School X are reflected within the Music Department in all aspects of policy, procedure, structure, organisation and development and this impacts heavily on all areas of the curriculum and extra curricular provision. As a result achievement amongst students from ethnic minority communities may be considered high if considering, not only exam success, but personal growth in terms of social awareness, instrumental proficiency and increased self-esteem gained as a direct result from association with the many opportunities the department has to offer.
Coffield, F. (2000) The Necessity of Informal Learning Bristol : The Policy Press
Coffield, F. [ed] (2000). Differing Visions of a Learning Society: Research Findings
Vol. 1&2. Bristol : The Policy Press.
Eraut, M (2004) Informal learning in the Workplace Teaching and Learning Research Programme
Lave, J. and E. Wenger (1991) Situated Learning; Legitimate Peripheral Participation Cambridge : Cambridge University Press
DES (1981) Education Act 1981. London : HMSO.
DES (1988) Education Reform Act 1988. London : HMSO.
DES (1991) Education Act 1991. London : HMSO.
DES (1993) Education Act 1993. London : HMSO.
DES (1996) Education Act 1996. London : HMSO.
Specification, Edexcel GCSE in Music – Issue 2 – February 2006
Rampton Report (DfES, 1981, 27)
LDA – Increase Black teacher numbers to improve education outcomes for Black children (Sept, 2004) http://www.lda.gov.uk/server.php?show=ConWebDoc.567
BRITISH COUNCIL – http://www.britishcouncil.org/diversity/
OFSTED PUBLICATIONS, Raising the attainment of minority ethnic pupils,
Barton, D., Hamilton, M. & Ivanic, R. [eds.] (2000). Situated Literacies. London :
Bernstein, B. (1990) Class, Codes and Control Vol.4: The Structuring of Pedagogic
Discourse London : Routledge
Bourdieu, P. & Passeron, J.C. (1990) Reproduction in Society, Society and Culture
(2nd. Edition) Cambridge : Polity Press
Buckingham, D. & Sefton-Green, J. (1993) Cultural Studies Goes to School: Reading and Teaching Popular Culture Brighton: Falmer Press
Buckingham, D. & Scanlon, M. (2003) Education, Entertainment and
Learning in the Home Milton Keynes ; Open University Press.
Castells. M. (2000) The Network Society (2nd Edition) Oxford : Blackwell.
Facer, K., Furlong, J., Furlong, R. & Sutherland, R. (2001) Home is where the
hardware is: young people, the domestic environment and ‘access’ to the new
technologies in Hutchby, I. & Moran-Ellis, J. [eds.] Children, Technology and
Culture London: Routledge
Gill, D. et al (1992) Racism and Education: Structures and Strategies. London , Sage.
Gillborn, David (1990) ‘Race’, Ethnicity and Education: Teaching and Learning in Multiethnic Schools. London , Unwin Hyman
Gillborn, David and Caroline Gipps (1996) Recent Research in the Achievement of Ethnic Minority Pupils. OFSTED Reviews of Research, HMSO, London .
Gilroy, Paul (1992) There ain’t no Black in the Union Jack. London , Routledge.
Gilroy, Paul (1992) ‘The End of Antiracism’, in Donald, James and Ali Rattansi (eds.) ‘Race’, Culture and Difference. London , Sage Publications: 49-61.
Green, Phil (2000) Raise the Standard: A practical guide to raising ethnic minority and bilingual pupils’ achievement. Stoke-on-Trent , Trentham Books.
Katz, J. (2000) Geeks New York : Villard Press
Kenway, J. & Bullen, E. (2991) Consuming Children: education-entertainment-
Advertising Buckingham: Open University Press.Parekh, Bhikhu (2000) The Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain. London, Profile Books Ltd.
Lord, P., Doherty, P.& Sefton-Green, J. Making Connection: Media Education and
Social Inclusion Leicester: NYA 2002
Livingstone, S. & Bovill, M. (1999) Young People, New Media London : LSE
McFarlane, A. [ed.] (1997) Information Technology and Authentic Learning: Realising the Potential of Computers in Primary Classrooms London : Routledge
Parekh, Bhikhu (2000) Rethinking Multiculturalism: Cultural Diversity and Political Theory. London , Macmillan.
Parker-Jenkins, Marie (1995) Children of Islam: A Teacher’s Guide to Meeting the Needs of Muslim Pupils. Stoke-on-Trent , Trentham Books.
Powell, Myrtis H. (1998) ‘Campus Climate and Students of Color’, in Valverde, Leonard A. and Louis A. Castenell, Jr. The Multicultural Campus: Strategies for Transforming Higher Education. London , Sage: 95-118.
OECD (2001) Cities and Regions in the New Learning Economy Paris : OECD
Papert, S. (1993). The Children’s Machine. New York: Basic Books
Scrimshaw, P. [ed.] (1993) Language, Classrooms and Computers London: Routledge
Seeley Brown, J. & Duguid, P. (2000) The Social Life of Information Boston Mass:
Harvard Business School
Sefton-Green, J (2003) Initiation rites; A Small Boy in a Poke-world
in J. Tobin [ed.] Pikachu’s Global Adventure: the Rise and Fall of Pokemon Durham
NC: Duke University Press
Tobin, J. (1998) An American otaku in Sefton-Green, J. [ed.] Digital Diversions:
Youth Culture in the Age of Multimedia London: UCL Press.
Turner, T (2001) Unit 4.4 Responding to Diversity, Learning to Teach in the Secondary School
Walkerdine, V. & Lucey, H. (1989) Democracy in the Kitchen: regulating Mothers and Socialising Daughters London: Virago
Willett, R. and Sefton-Green, J. (2003) ‘Living and Learning in Chatrooms (or
does informal learning have anything to teach us ?)’ Education et Sociétiés
|Student Body, School X
50% of the student population is Caucasian, though not exclusively white-British
Spectrum of Ethnic Minority Groups at School X
50% Mixed, with sub-categories of white and Caribbean, white and African, white and Asian and any other mixed background
Asian or Asian British, with sub-categories of Bangladeshi, Indian, Pakistani and any other Asian background
Black or Black British, with sub-categories of Caribbean , African and any other black background
Chinese or other ethnic group, with sub-categories of Chinese and other.
1.5B: Ofsted Inspection 2005: INSPECTION JUDGEMENTS Annex A
|Key to judgements: Grade 1 is outstanding, grade 2 good, grade 3 satisfactory, and grade 4 inadequate.||School
|How effective, efficient and inclusive is the provision of
education, integrated care and any extended services in
meeting the needs of learners?
|How well does the school work in partnership with others to promote learners. well-being?||1||1|
|The quality and standards in the Foundation Stage||-||-|
|The effectiveness of the school’s self-evaluation||1||1|
|The capacity to make any necessary improvements||Y||Y|
|Effective steps have been taken to promote improvement since the last inspection||Y||Y|
ACHIEVEMENT AND STANDARDS
|How well do learners achieve?||1||2|
|The standards reached by learners||3||3|
|How well learners. make progress, taking account of any significant variations between groups of learners||2||2|
|How well learners with learning difficulties and disabilities make progress||2|
PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT AND WELL-BEING
|How good is the overall personal development and well-being of the learners?||1|
|The extent of learners. spiritual, moral, social and cultural
|The behaviour of learners||1|
|How well learners enjoy their education||2|
|The extent to which learners adopt safe practices||1|
|The extent to which learners adopt healthy lifestyles||2|
|The extent to which learners make a positive contribution to the community.||1|
|How well learners develop workplace and other skills that will
contribute to their future economic well-being
THE QUALITY OF PROVISION
|How effective are teaching and learning in meeting the full
range of learners’ needs?
|How well do the curriculum and other activities meet the range of needs and interests of learners?||2||1|
|How well are learners cared for, guided and supported?||1||1|
|How well does the provision promote the well-being of learners?||1||1|
|The Curriculum at School X – KS3|
KEYWORDS: PITCH, DYNAMICS, TEMPO, DURATION, STRUCTURE, STYLE AND TEXTURE
KEYWORDS: MOOD, PROGRAMME MUSIC, EFFECTS, SPECIAL OCCASION
KEYWORDS: OSTINATO, PULSE, PENTATONIC, INTERLOCKING PATTERNS
4. SOUND AND SILENCE
KEYWORDS: EXPERIMENTAL, GRAPHIC SCORE, DURATION, PAUSE
KEYWORDS: SYNCOPATION, STEEL PANS, RIFF AND CARNIVAL
6. RUBBISH RHYTHMS
KEYWORDS: TIMBRE, IMPROVISATION, POLYRHYTHMS AND TEXTURES
|1. MELODY AND RHYTHM
KEYWORDS: SEQUENCE, SCALE, INTERVAL AND PITCH
KEYWORDS: STRUCTURE, HOOK, CHORD PROGRESSION AND STYLE
KEYWORDS: RHYTHMS, POLYRHYTHMS, SYNCOPATION, CARNIVAL, SOUTH AMERICA
4. THEME AND VARIATIONS
KEYWORDS: INVERSION, MELODIC DECORATION, DRONE, ACCOMPANIMENT, COUNTERMELODY, MAJOR/ MINOR
KEYWORDS: CHARACTER, STORYLINE, LYRICS, SOLO, DUET AND CHORUS
|1. ROCK ‘N’ ROLL
KEYWORDS: 12 BAR BLUES, IMPROVISATION
2. POP AND HIP-HOP
KEYWORDS: R ‘n’ B, STYLE, RECORDING, MIXING
KEYWORDS: OFF BEAT, RIFF, SKA, ROCKSTEADY , JAMAICA
4. CLUB DANCE
KEYWORDS: ECHO, REVERB, LOOP , LAYERS, CHORUS, SAMPLES, BREAK, CLUB, TECHNOLOGY
5. COMMERCIAL MUSIC
KEYWORDS: INDUSTRY, ADVERT, PRODUCT, THEME
1.5D: Some Suggested Religious Festivals
Muslim festivals: Festival of Eid ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha
Indian – Sikh & Hindu Festivals: Nam Karan, Naming of a Child, Amrit Sanskar, Baptism, Funeral Ceremony, Akhand Path, Gurpurbs, Baisakhi, Diwali, Festival of Lights
Jewish Festivals: Purim (Festival of Lots), Pesach (Passover), Shavuot (Pentecost) Christian Festivals: Christmas, Shrove Tuesday and Lent, Easter Sunday, Whitsun Chinese Festivals: New Year’s Day, First Day of the First Month of the year, The Lantern Festival – Yuanxiao Jie, 15th Day of the First Month of the year, Qingming – The Clear & Bright Festival, Dragon Boat Festival, 5th Day of the 5th Month of the year
1.5E: Areas of Study – Edexcel GCSE in Music
The specification content is defined by the lists of forms and styles for each Area of Study. Candidates will study the way sound is organised through relevant musical elements, devices, instrumental resources, tonalities, structures, notations and contextual influences.
|Area of Study 1||Area of Study 2||Area of Study 3||Area of Study 4|
|Structure in Western classical music 1600-1899||Changing directions in Western classical music from 1900||Popular music in context||Indian raga, African music and fusions|
|Through the study of:
• ground bass and variations
• ternary form
|Through the study of:
• expressionism and serialism
• experimental and electronic music.
|Through the study of:
• dance music 1985 — present day
• songs from musicals
• Britpop and its influences.
|Through the study of:
• Indian raga
• African music
UG017100 – Specification – Edexcel GCSE in Music – Issue 2 – February 2006